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'Quilting' is a method of sewing or tying two layers of cloth with a layer of insulating batting in between. A bed covering or similar large rectangular piece of quilting work is called a quilt. A quilt does not have to be rectangular, however. Many quilts hang on the wall as art quilts and are all kinds of shapes and sizes.

History


*There is a common belief that quilting originated in utilitarianism rather than decoration. But in [http://www.historyofquilts.com/colonial.html Colonial times] most women spent their days spinning, weaving and making clothing. Meanwhile women of the wealthy classes prided on their fine quilting of wholecloth quilts. Both their trapunto and broderie perse were considered fine needlework.
*The origins of this method of craft are thought to be in the Crusades, when soldiers needed warmth as well as protection from the chafing caused by heavy armour. Additionally, there are ancient Egyptian sculptures showing figures which appear to be wearing clothing which is quilted, possibly for warmth in the chilly desert evenings.
* Quilting is used in the making of a garment called a gambeson
*In modern times, art quilts have started to become popular for their aesthetic, artistic qualities rather than for functionality (i.e. they may hang on a wall instead of lying on a bed).
*The study of quilting history reveals the evolution of quilting as we know it today. Quilts made during the early 1800s were not constructed of pieced blocks but instead whole cloth quilts, broderie perse quilts and medallion quilts were made.

Practice


*The most basic form of quilting is a simple geometric grid and sometimes complex tessellation, sewn either by hand or nowadays by machine. The gridwork of stitches traps air in the material, making it much warmer than a single layer of fabric would be, or even the layers separately.
*Quilting can also be used as a form of elaborate decoration, where the stitchery creates complex designs and patterns, with or without the use of colour. Designs in the original fabrics can be put together to form new patterns.
*A quilt using a single piece of fabric as a quilt top is called a whole cloth quilt.
*The process of making a quilt involves three steps: piecing, layering, and binding. Piecing is the sewing of the quilt top. Layering places the quilt's backing, batting, and top in place. The main function of quilting is to hold the three layers together. Binding completes the quilt by finishing the edges with a trim of fabric.
*While a majority of quilt tops are pieced, many are made from a single piece of fabric. Using the latter enhances the intricacy of detailed quilting.
*Quilting is very often combined with embroidery, patchwork, applique and other forms of needlework to create patchwork quilts.
*Specialist quilting techniques:
** Sashiko quilting
** Trapunto quilting, also known as Italian quilting
** Shadow trapunto - quilting a design in fine Lawn and filling the pattern with small lengths of coloured wool.
** Crazy quilting
** Rag quilting is a style of quilting where people make the edges raggedy. If you look at a traditional quilt, the edges are all smooth. With rag quilting, the edges are frayed and then sometimes the fabric within the quilt is also frayed. So, it is almost three-dimensional looking.
** Appliqué is a very popular style of quilting, which is basically sewing fabric onto fabric. You have your quilt top and then you add pieces of fabric in shapes on top of that. So, it is almost like a fourth layer of quilting.
** Quilting motif is a style of quilting in which the blocks have a certain theme, say a bird motif or basket motif.
** Art quilting is a style in which the quilt may look like an impressionistic painting.
** Photo transfers on quilts and fusible designs. With photo transfer, you take actual photographs and print them on fabric with a computer. There are some amazing quilts that show the stages of a person's life using this method.
** Pictorial quilting entails making a quilt entirely of fabric that end up looking like a photograph. People take a photo and they recreate it in fabric down to the last detail.
*See also: Quilt for examples of quilts, and AIDS quilt

Social aspects


*Quilters are cooperative people. They exchange fabrics or quilt blocks with each other.
*They also frequently gather in larger groups (sometimes called "quilting bees") to collectively apply the gridwork of quilting.
*Quilters may also attend Quilt Guild meetings in their local area. Many quilt guilds meet monthly and feature lectures and other activities. http://www.quiltguilds.com/
*Quilters are usually very charitable, giving away many of the beautiful projects to loved ones and to organizations which then redistribute the quilts to children's hospitals, crisis centers, and similar groups.
*Quilts are often made to commemorate events (e.g. weddings and births) and can incorporate pieces of fabric from used or worn-out clothing. Such quilts become historical documents for the quiltmaker and his or her loved ones.
*Quilting is an excellent educational tool. It requires students to use mathematical, geometric, spatial, artistic and manual skills. It can be used in conjunction with any unit of study (examples would be to make a pictorial quilt that depicts a story the class is reading, or a particular event in history). It can be made age-appropriate by choice of materials (paper, fabric, etc.) and complexity of design.
*Quilters have embraced the use of technology and the Internet to reach other quilters and to share quilting practices and how-tos.

Tivaevae


A separate and distinct art form practised in the Pacific, especially the Cook Islands, is tivaevae, with many of the social and value aspects of quilting.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Quilting".